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匠心 | 景泰蓝:曾是“新中国第一份国礼”

在21世纪全球化潮流之中,什么才是中国?

哪些是我们几乎遗忘的民族记忆?

哪些是在世界文化潮流中,当代中国的精神特质?

我们将基于什么来创造中华文明在世界中的当代贡献?

“何以中国”系列短视频节目立足中国历史,寻找中国传统文化元素在当下的复兴,探寻通往中国文化深层精神内核的路径。

 

如古玉般温润,如锦缎般富丽,集绘画、雕刻、青铜、瓷器等中国传统工艺于一身,这就是景泰蓝。

It is as gentle as ancient jade, and as gallant as colorful silk. From paintings and sculptures to bronzes and porcelains, it is a combination of Chinese traditional arts and crafts. This is Chinese Cloisonné.

景泰蓝,又名铜胎掐丝珐琅,从元代进入中国,工艺在明代景泰年间成熟,清朝乾隆年间达到鼎盛,发展至今已有600多年的历史。

Chinese Cloisonné (Jingtai Blue), also known as the cloisonné technique or copper padding thread weaving enamel, was introduced into China more than 6 centuries ago, during the Yuan Dynasty. After maturing under the reign of Emperor Jingtai during the Ming Dynasty, Chinese Cloisonné ultimately flourished under Emperor Qianlong during the Qing Dynasty.

从制胎、掐丝、点蓝、再到烧蓝、磨光、镀金,经六大工艺景泰蓝才能制作完成。因其工艺的繁复,以及所用材质的贵重,景泰蓝一直是皇室御用之物,正所谓“一件景泰蓝,十箱官窑器”。

From making the copper mold, welding copper, and coloring, to firing, polishing, and gold-plating, each piece of Chinese Cloisonné artifact undergoes six stages to reach completion. Due to the complexity of the craft and cost of materials, Chinese Cloisonné artifacts used to be owned solely by royal families – in fact, there is a saying goes“one piece of Chinese Cloisonné artifact was worth as much as ten cases of imperial wares”.

因为战乱,到解放之初这种技艺快要失传。梁思成、林徽因在清华大学创立了营建系的工艺美术小组,他们抢救、恢复了景泰蓝技艺,研究出了新的纹样和色彩图,设计出了景泰蓝台灯等,被郭沫若称为“新中国第一份国礼”。

Due to the chaos caused by war, the use of this technique almost disappeared after the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). To reverse a potential loss of art, architects Liang Sicheng and Lin Huiyin co-established an arts and crafts group under the department of construction at Tsinghua University, which aimed at recovering the Chinese Cloisonné technique. Consequently, they were not only able to create new patterns and color maps, but also design the Jintai Blue lamp. Author Guo Moruo referred to their success as“the first present for PRC”.

林徽因临终嘱托:“景泰蓝是国宝,不要在新中国失传”,钱美华大师几十年践行恩师遗愿,把毕生心血都奉献给了景泰蓝艺术事业。她曾经在故宫的景泰蓝库房研究整理了很多优秀的传统图案,在82岁时创作了收官之作《和平尊》,为祖国六十华诞献礼。

Before passing away, Lin Huiyin told her students,“Chinese Cloisonné is a national treasure, and we cannot let it disappear from New China.” To fulfill her mentor’s wish, artist Qian Meihua dedicated decades of her life to Chinese Cloisonné artifacts. She often spent time in the Chinese Cloisonné storage vault at the Forbidden Palace, researching and compiling traditional designs. At the age of 82, she created her last piece, The Zun of Peace,as a present for the 60th anniversary of the founding of China.

钟连盛师承于钱美华,作为新中国第三代景泰蓝技艺传承人,他在传统的工艺之中融合了简洁流畅、疏密有致的现代审美。他从日常生活中提取灵感,《荷梦》系列正是来源于周末出游时看到的夕阳下的满湖荷花。瓶身大面积的水波纹无丝而不崩蓝,打破了景泰蓝处处丝纹密布的传统装饰风格。

A student of Meihua Qian, Zhong Liansheng became the third generation of artists to inherit the Chinese Cloisonné technique. He successfully incorporated simple but distinct modern aspects into this traditional technique. According to him, inspiration comes from everyday life; this is seen in A Dream of Lotus Flowers series, where during a weekend holiday, he found inspiration while peering down a lake filled with lotus flowers. Breaking away from the traditional Chinese Cloisonné decoration technique, his unique creation had minimal welding.

从国际文化交流使者,到国事访问的国礼,从大型室内外景观装饰工程,再到工艺陈设乃至生活用品,景泰蓝这一传统的工艺越来越融入到当代生活之中。

From cultural exchanges to state visits, from large-scale landscape projects and displays to daily necessities, the Chinese Cloisonné technique is more widely seen and incorporated into modern daily life.

几代景泰蓝大师开拓进取、锐意创新,用他们一生的坚守,诠释了“创新才是最好的传承”。

Through enlightened discovery and keen creation, the past masters of Chinese Cloisonné spent their lives protecting this craft, which in turn taught us that“innovation is the best inheritance”.

 

 

来源:艺术中国

转载于:凤凰网

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